This dynasty eventually drove the Hyksos back into Asia under Seqenenre Tao, Kamose and finally Ahmose, first pharaoh of the New Kingdom.
The Thirteenth Dynasty (following the Turin King List) ruled from 1802 to around 1649 BC and lasted 153 or 154 years according to Manetho. The dynasty comprised many rulers with West Semitic names and is thus believed to have been Canaanite in origin.
This opening of trade eventually led to the downfall of the Middle Kingdom, induced by an invasion from the Hyksos.
The second part of the Eleventh Dynasty is considered to be part of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt.
He had reigned for more than 64 and likely up to 94 years, longer than any monarch in history.
The latter years of his reign were marked by inefficiency because of his advanced age.
Modern lists of pharaohs are based on historical records: Ancient Egyptian king lists and later histories, such as Manetho's Aegyptiaca, as well as archaeological evidence.
The First Intermediate Period (2181–2060 BC) is a period of disarray and chaos between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom.
The Old Kingdom rapidly collapsed after the death of Pepi II.
Around 2055 BC, Mentuhotep II, the son and successor of pharaoh Intef III defeated the Herakleopolitan pharaohs and reunited the Two Lands, thereby starting the Middle Kingdom.
The Seventh and Eighth Dynasties ruled for approximately 20–45 years.
Long time it was thought that the Meidum Pyramid was not Snofru's work, but that of king Huni. Khufu is depicted as a cruel tyrant by ancient Greek authors, Ancient Egyptian sources however describe him as a generous and pious ruler.